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Wednesday, April 21, 2021

    About ‘Coronavirus’ & it’s Recommendations

    There are two domains in the S1 subunit which Coronavirus recognize as a variety of host receptors, leading to the viral attachment

    According to the WHO, (World Health Organization), viral diseases continue to emerge and represent a serious issue to public health. On February 11, 2020, the WHO director-general, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus announced that the disease caused by this new CoV was a “COVID-19” which is the acronym of “Coronavirus Disease 2019”. In the past 20 years, two additional Coronavirus epidemics have occurred. SARS-CoV provoked a large-scale epidemic beginning in China and involving two dozen countries with approximately 8000 cases and 800 death. This new virus seems to be very contagious and has quickly spread globally. On January 30, 2020, per the IHR (International Health Regulations – 2005) the outbreak was declared by the WHO, “A Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) as it had spread to 18 countries with countries reporting human-to-human transmission. This new virus called 2019-nCoV.

    This viral infection has arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. Peoples are at severe risk of acquiring several evolving viral infections through several factors. In December 2019, Wuhan, Province, China becomes the center of an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown cause. The rise intense attention not only within China but also internationally. Chinese health authorities did an immediate investigation to characterise and control disease, close monitoring of contacts, epidemiological and clinical data collection from patient and development of diagnostic and treatment procedures.

    Coronavirus, which appearance of having crowns ( The Latin word ‘coronam’ means ‘crown’) named as Corona. The Coronavirus spike protein, which is a multifunctional molecular machine that mediates its entry into host cells. Coronavirus belongs to the family Coronaviridae and in the order Nidovirales. This virus can be classified into four genera- (a) Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV) (b) Betacoronavirus (betaCoV) (c) Gammacoronavirus (gammaCoV) (d) Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV). Among them, the Alpha and Betacoronavirus infect mammals, Gammacoronavirus infect the avian species and Deltacoronavirus infects both mammalian and avian species. From here the most important thing that, the representative Alphacoronaviruses include the human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), PEDV, porcine respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV).

    Coronaviruses are a large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus. They have the largest genome among all RNA viruses, typically ranging from 27 to 32 kb. The genome is packed inside a helical capsid formed by the nucleocapsid protein (N) and further surrounded by an envelope. This associated with the viral envelope is at least three structural proteins, which are membrane proteins. Envelope proteins and spike proteins mediate virus entry into host cells. Also, the Coronavirus encodes an envelope – associated hemagglutinin – esterase protein. Where the virus can live. They have some subunits, and the virus first binds to a receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit and then fuses viral and host membranes through its S2 subunit. There are two domains in the S1 subunit which are different Coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, leading to the viral attachment. Strike protein exists in two structurally distinct confirmations, perfusion and postfusion.

    The Common Human CoVs are – HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 (betaCoVs of the A lineage), HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 (alphaCoVs). They can cause common colds, coughing and self-limiting upper respiratory infections in immunocompetent individuals. In the immunocompromised and the elderly, lower respiratory tract infections can occur. This viral symptoms of the early stages of the disease are nonspecific. The differential diagnosis should include the possibility of a wide range of infectious and non-infectious common respiratory disorders, such as – Adenovirus, Influenza, Humen metapneumovirus (HmPV), Parainfluenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Rhinovirus (Common Cold) etc. Other Human CoVs are some epidemics with variable clinical severity featuring respiratory and extra-respiratory manifestations.

    The COVID-19 may present with mild, moderate, or severe illness. Among the severe clinical manifestations, there are severe pneumonia, ARDS, sepsis, and septic shock. Moderate pneumonia is such as cough and shortness of breath (or tachypnea in children).

    There is no specific antiviral treatment recommend for COVID-19, and no vaccine is currently available. For patients with severe therapy represents the major treatment intervention. In case of respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation may be necessary, and for managing septic shock the hemodynamic support is essential.

    Preventive measures of this virus are the current strategy to limit the spread of cases. The WHO and other organizations have issued the following general recommendations for the public. Which are as follows:

    • Avoid close contact with subject suffering from acute respiratory infections.

    • Avoid unprotected contact with farm or wild animals.

    • Wash your hands frequently, especially after contact with infected people or their environment.

    • Individuals that are immunocompromised should avoid public gatherings.

    • People with symptoms of acute airways infection should keep their distance, cover cough or sneezes with disposable tissue or clothes and wash their hands.

    • Strength in particular in emergency medicine department, the application of strict hygiene measures for prevention and control of infections.

    These are considered as the some above mentioned common diseases can be termed as the cause of Coronavirus infected disease, but still long term complication among survives of infection with SARC-CoV-2 having clinically significant COVID-19 disease are not available. For this virus the precautions are necessary. This virus can’t live at any high temperature. So avoid the cold places as per as possible and keep our body temperature high. And we avoid the contraction and spread of this disease.

    The views expressed by the author are personal and may not in any way represent those of TIME8.


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